1.
The continued variability of the climate (wet and dry cycles) complicated by the resultant overcrowding may have made the private storage of food-stuffs increasingly hazardous and the maintaining of order more difficult

2.
When compared with similar sightings all would be remarkable in their variability, but each viewer would believe that only his was the most accurate

3.
Consist of numerous small causes of random variability

4.
Because of the intermittency and variability of the wind, conventional power plants must be kept running at full capacity to meet the actual demand for electricity

5.
It can hardly be denied that a factor of such volume and variability as home-consumed wheat would have a substantial influence

6.
as a starting point and struggles to understand the variability of our perceptions

7.
variability in the cost of care from one area of the nation to another, is

8.
Understand the variability of a process

9.
Also variability may be interesting but it can be confusing

10.
It works together with business risk through the variability of operating income;

11.
Capital structure analysis adjusts for both the amount and variability of sales by

12.
the chain: demand schedules, variability of income, the probability of default and the

13.
dividends; the variability of income is increased

14.
The same theme of variability applies to the financial leverage ratio, which is

15.
magnitude of these deductions that will cause variability

16.
taxes are held constant, the variability of net income remains constant as well

17.
The variability is as much a function of the type of

18.
the potential amount and variability of earnings per share because net income and market price are not diluted by more shares outstanding

19.
While higher operating leverage ultimately increases the variability of EPS, just as

20.
of more variability because risk is not explicit; there are no indications of changes in fixed costs which can have long-term effects on production

21.
increases the variability of EPS

22.
A greater variability of earnings is the product of more

23.
variability in forecasts because it is essentially a mathematical version of Murphy ’s Law:

24.
Because, the simplest processes with the least causation or input variability are more likely to propagate independently than processes of increasing

25.
the variability of the changes is so great

26.
Finger and hand size had some variability depending on season, temperature, and health conditions

27.
“There is some variability when it comes to luck,” Tammas said

28.
understand the normal variability of the data during what is considered a typical operational

29.
approaching (alert level) or exceeding (action level) the boundaries of that “normal variability”

30.
Project managers avoid unnecessary changes in priority by relying on buffers to absorb most of the normal, expected variability in the execution of tasks and projects

31.
amongst organic beings in a state of nature there is some individual variability

32.
significant variability in the rate of extinction between and

33.
function, characterized by unusual variability and depth of moods

34.
However, the balanced scorecard technique is fraught with uncertainties resulting from the variability in how indicators, metrics, and objectives are assigned

35.
If the Universe were finite in size: then there could be no permutations of variability, then there could be no quarks that behave differently from other quarks, then there could be no creative evolution of the Universe, then there could be no organic evolution, then there could be no Life on Earth and no human beings

36.
order to maintain the variability that is so inestimable on this

37.
"� We can say "Yes" to life in all its variability

38.
The variability of where the

39.
The variability of where the

40.
In keeping with his views, they have the property of variability

41.
difficult to determine because of the wide variability of its action and its tolerance

42.
Its universality: its democratic equality and constancy to its nature in seeking its own level: its vastness in the ocean of Mercator's projection: its unplumbed profundity in the Sundam trench of the Pacific exceeding 8000 fathoms: the restlessness of its waves and surface particles visiting in turn all points of its seaboard: the independence of its units: the variability of states of sea: its hydrostatic quiescence in calm: its hydrokinetic turgidity in neap and spring tides: its subsidence after devastation: its sterility in the circumpolar icecaps, arctic and antarctic: its climatic and commercial significance: its preponderance of 3 to 1 over the dry land of the globe: its indisputable hegemony extending in square leagues over all the region below the subequatorial tropic of Capricorn: the multisecular stability of its primeval basin: its luteofulvous bed: its capacity to dissolve and hold in solution all soluble substances including millions of tons of the most precious metals: its slow erosions of peninsulas and islands, its persistent formation of homothetic islands, peninsulas and downwardtending promontories: its alluvial deposits: its weight and volume and density: its imperturbability in lagoons and highland tarns: its gradation of colours in the torrid and temperate and frigid zones: its vehicular ramifications in continental lakecontained streams and confluent oceanflowing rivers with their tributaries and transoceanic currents, gulfstream, north and south equatorial courses: its violence in seaquakes, waterspouts, Artesian wells, eruptions, torrents, eddies, freshets, spates, groundswells, watersheds, waterpartings, geysers, cataracts, whirlpools, maelstroms, inundations, deluges, cloudbursts: its vast circumterrestrial ahorizontal curve: its secrecy in springs and latent humidity, revealed by rhabdomantic or hygrometric instruments and exemplified by the well by the hole in the wall at Ashtown gate, saturation of air, distillation of dew: the simplicity of its composition, two constituent parts of hydrogen with one constituent part of oxygen: its healing virtues: its buoyancy in the waters of the Dead Sea: its persevering penetrativeness in runnels, gullies, inadequate dams, leaks on

43.
And although you were perfect in most of the cognitive domains today, you showed a lot of variability in two of the tasks that were related to recent memory

44.
In this case, the increased risk from the fixed fractional approach is a good thing; nearly all of the extra variability is potential upside

45.
Note that in nearly all scenarios where the mean of the randomly sized scenarios is not much different from the nonrandom baseline, only the variability increases and it does so symmetrically, meaning that, in this case, standard deviations actually are a good proxy for risk

46.
Which of these carries more risk: a fund that will return 5 percent annually with a 10 percent standard deviation or a fund that will return 5 percent annually with an asymmetrical risk profile extending 5 percent downward and 15 percent upward? The second fund has dramatically higher variability, but all of the extra “risk” is skewed to the upside—in this case, variability is opportunity, not risk, as we saw earlier with fixed fractional position sizing

47.
While not a meaningful measure by itself, it is useful when comparing different trading techniques, systems, or patterns, as it shows how much variability is being assumed per unit of return

48.
A trader must therefore systematically trade the signals many, many times (say >100) to cancel out the variability and achieve the indicated mean returns reliably

49.
The best way to use volatility information is to treat it as an index - a number that measures variability in the market

50.
The price variability of bonds in general is treated in Chapter 8, The Investor and Market Fluctuations

51.
Intel earnings, given their greater variability, should probably be discounted at a higher rate

52.
Heilbrunn's innovation was to focus on the variability of a single stock as it traded within its historic ranges, identifying its highs and lows as compared with itself

53.
And although you were perfect in most of the cognitive domains today, you showed a lot of variability in two of the tasks that were related to recent memory

54.
State the source(s) you relied on for your initial estimates of incidence and variability

55.
Are the results expressed in appropriate units? For example, are parts per thousand more natural in a specific case than percentages? Have we rounded off to the correct degree of precision, taking account of what we know about the variability of the results, and considering whether the reader will use them, perhaps by multiplying by a constant factor, or another variable?

56.
considerable variance in the onset of these transients may be due to variability in

57.
This variability in response may be

58.
interindividual variability in delay discounting

59.
This may seem counterintuitive because we tend to expect greater variability over long periods of time than over short periods

60.
However, volatility can be thought of as an average variability

61.
• In addition to the correlated variability in returns from carry trades, there is substantial correlation with broader macro-risks such as that of equities

62.
Empirically, a higher inflation level is associated with greater inflation variability and uncertainty as well as with slower productivity growth

63.
Time series analyses on major economies and cross-country comparisons agree: Barro (1995) studies the experience in over 100 countries over a 30-year period and documents a positive link between inflation level and inflation variability as well as a negative link between both of these and economic growth

64.
Unpublished subperiod analysis suggests some time variation although this might reflect sampling variability

65.
This means that as the time period until options expiration increases, the variability of delta-neutrality boundaries also increases

66.
) Even the last financial crisis has not changed the bullish skewness of an average short combination constructed of options with the nearest expiration date, though it undoubtedly has had an effect on variability of the call-to-put ratio

67.
Besides, it is noticeable that the variability of the call-to-put ratio (shown in Figure 1

68.
• Robustness of optimal solution—The extent of the objective function variability in the area of optimization space that surrounds the optimal solution node

69.
The correlation coefficient shows the extent of interrelationship between two functions, and the determination coefficient (the square of correlation coefficient) expresses the extent to which the variability of one objective function is explained by the variability of the second function

70.
More sophisticated approaches to estimating the steadiness should express numerically the sensitivity of optimization space (for example, by calculating the variability of coordinates of nodes constituting the optimal areas)

71.
Besides, the variability of optimal solutions estimated for the profit-based objective function decreases as the number of trials increases (see the right-hand chart of Figure 2

72.
The objective estimation of price variability can be derived only from the past price fluctuations (other estimates, for example, those based on expert opinions, cannot be completely objective)

73.
It was suggested to use the standard deviation of asset returns (or their dispersion) as the measure of price variability, which is usually denoted by the term “historical volatility

74.
Differences of the portfolios created long before the expiration (30 to 60 days) were close to zero, though their variability (shown on the chart as standard deviations) was substantial

75.
Bars depicting the variability of outcomes are situated in both the negative and the positive areas for portfolios created far from their expiration dates (see Figure 3

76.
Therefore, for portfolios created a long time before the expiration, the effectiveness of the index delta can be increased by applying additional risk indicators, while for portfolios created just before the expiration date, the introduction of adjusting coefficients seems to be sufficient (since the variability of results is low)

77.
4 shows the average differences and standard errors (expressing the extent of results variability) for different testing horizons

78.
Delta ranked second in terms of weight variability (0

79.
Hence, its application to evaluate variability of portfolio returns is impossible

80.
This problem may be solved by expressing return variability through standard deviation not normalized by the mean

81.
In such cases, trends (or any other patterns) observable in the dynamics of standard deviation may in fact reflect trends of the mean, not of the variability

82.
Thus, in our study it would be appropriate to use nonnormalized standard deviation as the measure of variability

83.
In other words, which factors make the decision about the selection of the specific indicator (used to construct the portfolio) a critical issue? To answer this question, we will examine the influence of three factors (historical volatility, the timing of portfolio creation, and the number of different underlying assets in the portfolio) on return variability of portfolios differing from each other by the capital allocation method

84.
To determine whether market volatility has an influence on the return variability of portfolios created using different indicators, we calculated the historical volatility of the S&P 500 index for each date on which portfolios were constructed (a 120-day historical horizon was used)

85.
All return variability values were grouped by the levels of S&P 500 historical volatility

86.
There is a direct relationship between the volatility level and the return variability of portfolios created on the basis of different indicators

87.
On the other hand, if at the moment of portfolio construction the volatility was high, the variability of returns realized at the expiration date was also high

88.
Relationship between the return variability of portfolios constructed using different capital allocation methods, and the historical market volatility measured at the moment of portfolios creation

89.
This implies that during periods of volatile market return, the variability of portfolios may either be high (as noted previously) or moderate (as follows from the properties of conditional heteroskedasticity)

90.
Averaging of all standard deviations within each group makes it possible to analyze the relationship between the variability of portfolio returns and the number of days left until options expiration

91.
4 demonstrates that the more days left until options expiration at the moment of portfolio creation, the higher the profit variability of portfolios created using different indicators

92.
There is a strong inverse relationship between return variability and the number of underlying assets

93.
In general, we can state that the higher the number of underlying assets, the lower the profit variability

94.
Since in reality they have simultaneous influence on profit variability, we need to perform a statistical test that analyzes the effect of the three factors within the common framework

95.
1 should not be used for forecasting the portfolio return variability, but only for revealing the statistical significance of the influence exerted by each of the factors

96.
Historical volatility HV of an underlying asset characterizes the variability of its price during the period preceding the current moment

97.
Implied volatility IV expresses the price variability of the same underlying asset that is expected by the market in the future

98.
The indicator reflecting the extent of the underlying asset price variability at the specific time interval

99.
A number of criteria can be constructed on the basis of different characteristics expressing variability of the underlying asset price

100.
Another method of creating nonforecasting universal criteria is to combine average values of forecasting criteria with variability indicators